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The History of Video Conferencing – Moving Ahead at the Speed of Video

No new technology develops smoothly, and video conferencing has had more than its fair share of hurdles before becoming the widely used communication tool it is today. The history of videoconferencing in its earliest form dates back to the 1960s, when AT&T introduced the Picturephone at the New York World’s Fair. Although considered a fascinating curiosity, it never became popular and was too expensive to be practical for most consumers when it was offered for $160 per month in 1970. The commercial use of actual videoconferencing was first realized with Ericsson’s demonstration of the first Transatlantic LME Video Phone Call. Soon, other companies began refining video conferencing technologies, including such advancements as Network Video Protocol (NVP) in 1976 and Packet Video Protocol (PVP) in 1981. However, none of these it was only used for commercial purposes and remained in the laboratory or in a private company. use. In 1976, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone established videoconferencing (VC) between Tokyo and Osaka for corporate use. IBM Japan followed suit in 1982 by establishing a VC running at 48,000 bps to connect to the internal IBM video conferencing links already established in the United States so that they could have weekly meetings. 1980s Brings Commercial Video Conferencing In 1982, Compression Labs introduced its VC system to the world for $250,000 with lines at $1,000 per hour. The system was huge and used huge resources capable of tripping 15 amp circuit breakers. It was, however, the only working VC system available until PictureTel’s VC came to market in 1986 with their significantly cheaper $80,000 system with $100 per hour lines. Between these two commercially offered systems, other videoconferencing systems have been developed which have never been commercially offered. The history of video conferencing is not complete without mentioning those systems which were either prototypes or systems developed specifically for internal use by various companies or organizations including the military. Around 1984, Datapoint was using the Datapoint MINX system at its Texas campus and had supplied the system to the military. In the late 1980s Mitsubishi started selling a still image phone which was basically a flop in the market. They dropped the line two years after introducing it. In 1991, the first PC-based video conferencing system was introduced by IBM – PicTel. It was a black-and-white system using what was at the time an incredibly low price of $30 per hour for the lines, while the system itself cost $20,000. By June of the same year, DARTnet had successfully connected a transcontinental IP network of more than a dozen research sites in the United States and Great Britain using T1 trunks. Today, DARTnet has become the CAIRN system, which connects dozens of institutions. CU-SeeMe Revolutionizes Video Conferencing One of the most famous systems in the history of video conferencing was the CU-SeeMe developed for the MacIntosh system in 1992. Although the first version had no audio, it was the best video system developed for it. point. In 1993, the MAC program had multipoint capability, and in 1994, CU-SeeMe MAC was true video conferencing with audio. Recognizing the limitations of MAC compatibility in a Windows world, the developers worked diligently to deploy the April 1994 CU-SeeME for Windows (without audio), followed closely by the audio version, CU-SeeMe v0.66b1 for Windows in August 1995. In 1992, AT&T released its own $1,500 videophone for the home market. It was a borderline success. That same year, the world’s first MBone audio/video broadcast took place and in July, INRIA’s videoconferencing system was set up. It was the year that saw the first real explosion in videoconferencing for businesses around the world and ultimately led to the standards developed by the ITU. International Telecommunication Union develops encoding standards The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) began developing standards for video conferencing encoding in 1996, when it established the H.263 standard to reduce the bandwidth of transmission for low-speed communications. Other standards have been developed, including H.323 for packet-based multimedia communications. These are a variety of other telecommunications standards that were revised and updated in 1998. In 1999, the MPEG-4 standard was developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group as an ISO standard for content multimedia. In 1993, VocalChat Networks Novell IPX introduced their video conferencing system, but it was doomed from the start and didn’t last. Microsoft finally joined the video conferencing bandwagon with NetMeeting, a descendant of PictureTel’s Liveshare Plus, in August 1996 (although it had no video in this version). In December of the same year, Microsoft NetMeeting v2.0b2 with video was released. That same month, VocalTec’s Internet Phone v4.0 for Windows was introduced. VRVS connects research centers worldwide Caltech-CERN’s Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) project began in July 1997. They developed VRVS specifically to provide videoconferencing to Large Hadron Collider project researchers and high-energy scientists and nuclear. Physics community in the United States and Europe. It was so successful that seed money was allocated to phase two, CalREN-2, to improve and expand the VRVS system already in place to expand it to encompass geneticists, physicians and a host of other scientists in the worldwide videoconference network. The Cornell University development team released CU-SeeMe v1.0 in 1998. This color video version was compatible with Windows and MacIntosh, and represented a huge step forward in PC video conferencing. In May of that year, the team moved on to other projects. In February 1999, the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) was launched by MMUSIC. The platform showed some advantages over H.323 which the user appreciated and soon made it almost as popular. 1999 was a very busy year, with the release of NetMeeting v3.0b, followed quickly by version three of the ITU H.323 standard. Then came the release of iVisit v2.3b5 for Windows and Mac, followed by Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), version 1. In December, Microsoft released a service pack for NetMeeting v3.01 (4.4.3388) and a standard ISO The second version of MPEG-4 has been released. Finally, PSInet was the first company to launch automated H.323 multipoint services. As we said, 1999 was a very busy year. SIP entered version 1.30 in November 2000, the same year the H.323 standard reached version 4, and Samsung released its MPEG-4 streaming 3G video cellphone, the first of its kind. It was a success, especially in Japan. As expected, Microsoft NetMeeting had to release another service pack for version 3.01. In 2001, Windows XP Messenger announced that it would now support the Session Initiation Protocol. It was the same year that the world’s first transatlantic telesurgery took place using videoconferencing. In this case, videoconferencing allowed an American surgeon to use a robot overseas to perform gallbladder surgery on a patient. It was one of the most compelling non-commercial uses in the history of videoconferencing and brought the technology to the attention of the medical profession and the general public. In October 2001, television journalists began using a portable satellite and videophone to broadcast live from Afghanistan during the war. This was the first use of video conferencing technology to converse live with video with someone in a war zone, again bringing video conferencing to the forefront of people’s imaginations. Founded in December 2001, the Joint Video Team completed fundamental research leading to ITU-T H.264 in December 2002. This protocol standardized video compression technology for MPEG-4 and ITU-T across a wide range of domains of application, making it more versatile than its predecessors. In March 2003, the new technology was ready to be launched in the industry. New Uses for Videoconferencing Technologies The year 2003 also saw an increase in the use of videoconferencing for off-campus classrooms. Interactive classrooms became more popular as streaming video quality increased and lag decreased. Companies such as VBrick have supplied various MPEG-4 systems to colleges across the country. Desktop video conferencing is also on the rise and growing in popularity. Newer companies on the market are now refining performance details in addition to drivetrain nuts and bolts. In April 2004, Applied Global Technologies developed a voice-activated camera for use in video conferencing that tracks the voices of various speakers to focus on who is speaking on a conference call. In March 2004, Linux announced the release of GnomeMeeting, a free H.323-compatible video conferencing platform compatible with NetMeeting. With the steady advancements in video conferencing systems, it seems obvious that the technology will continue to evolve and become an integral part of business and personal life. As new advances are made and system prices become more reasonable, keep in mind that choices are still determined by network type, system requirements, and your particular conferencing needs. This article on “The History of Video Conferencing” reproduced with permission.

Copyright © 2004 Evaluseek Publishing.

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